Other materials relating to official party bodies have at some point been abstracted from personal deposits, notably the extensive papers of R. Palme Dutt, whose annotations can be found on documents scattered throughout the archives. With these exceptions, the central records of the Party itself date primarily from the mid-to-late s. In particular, they can be connected with the overhaul of party organisation inand it is from this point that key classes of documents, like those of the Executive Committee and Organisation Department, can be followed more or less continuously.
The German-language name Deutschland is derived from a Germanic root meaning volk, or people. A document written in Latin from the Frankish court of C. From this point forward, the term deutsch was employed to mark a difference in speech, which corresponded to political, geographic, and social distinctions as well.
Since, however, the Frankish and Saxon kings of the early Middle Ages sought to characterize themselves as emperors of Rome, it does not seem valid to infer an incipient form of national consciousness.
Nevertheless, this self-designation indicates the desire of the members of the Imperial Estates to distinguish themselves from the curia in Rome, with which they were embroiled in a number of political and financial conflicts.
The area that became known as Deutschland, or Germany, had been nominally under the rule of the German king—who was usually also the Roman emperor—since the tenth century.
In fact, however, the various territories, principalities, counties, and cities enjoyed a large degree of autonomy and retained distinctive names and traditions, even after the founding of the nation-state—the Kaiserreich or German Empire—in Other older names, such as Swabia and Franconia, refer to "historical landscapes" within the modern federal states or straddling their boundaries.
Regional identities such as these are of great significance for many Germans, though it is evident that they are often manipulated for political and commercial purposes as well.
At first, it consisted only of so-called West Germany, that is the areas that were occupied by British, French, and American forces. Since that time, Germany has consisted of sixteen federal states: Germany is located in north-central Europe. It shares boundaries with nine other countries: Shortly after the unification of East and West Germany inthe Federal Republic signed a treaty with Poland, in which it renounced all claims to territories east of the boundary formed by the Oder and Neisse rivers—the de facto border since the end of World War II.
The northern part of Germany, which lies on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, is a coastal plain of low elevation.
In the east, this coastal plain extends southward for over miles kilometersbut, in the rest of the country, the central region is dotted with foothills. Thereafter, the elevation increases fairly steadily, culminating in the Black Forest in the southwest and the Bavarian Alps in the south.
Similarly, the Oder river, which marks the border with Poland, flows northward into the Baltic Sea. The Danube has its source in the Black Forest then runs eastward, draining southern Germany and emptying eventually into the Black Sea. Germany has a temperate seasonal climate with moderate to heavy rainfall.
The population continued to rise in the first half of this century, though this trend was hindered by heavy losses in the two world wars.
Inthe total population of Germany was 82 million. Of this sum, nearly 67 million lived in former West Germany, and just over 15 million lived in former East Germany. Inthe year Germany invaded Poland, the population of what was to become West Germany was 43 million and the population of what was to become East Germany was almost 17 million.
This means that from toboth the total population and the population of West Germany have increased, while the population of East Germany has decreased.
Following World War II, the population of both parts of Germany rose dramatically, due to the arrival of German refugees from the Soviet Union and from areas that are now part of Poland and the Czech Republic.
Ineight million refugees formed 16 percent of the West German population and over four million refugees formed 22 percent of the East German population.Michigan Law Review; Handgun Prohibition and the Original Meaning of the Second Amendment, by Don B.
In the twentieth century, however, Marxist historians introduced the use of the term "English Revolution" to describe the period of the English Civil Wars and Commonwealth period (–), in which Parliament challenged King Charles I's authority, engaged in civil conflict against his forces, and executed him in Rise of the Commons Edward III came to the throne in , and from that point the representatives of the counties (knights of the shire) and of the towns (burgesses) became a permanent part of Parliament.
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Christianity took root in France in the second century, and became so firmly established that France obtained the title "Eldest daughter of the Church," and the French would adopt this as justification for calling themselves "the Most Christian Kingdom of France." Later France produced a series of philosophers noted for radical skepticism, and atheism.
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