January 05, We enter a new year I will complete my 59th cycle on the planet in a couple of months.
Biographical Background The setting of Buber's early childhood was Vienna, then still the cosmopolitan capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a multiethnic conglomerate whose eventual demise in the First World War effectively ended the millennial rule of Catholic princes in Europe.
For the next ten years, he lived with his paternal grandparents, Solomon and Adele Buber, in Lemberg now: His reputation opened the doors for Martin when he began to show interest in Zionism and Hasidic literature.
The wealth of his grandparents was built on the Galician estate managed by Adele and enhanced by Solomon through mining, banking, and commerce.
It provided Martin with financial security until the German occupation of Poland inwhen their estate was expropriated. Home-schooled and pampered by his grandmother, Buber was a bookish aesthete with few friends his age, whose major diversion was the play of the imagination.
German was the dominant language at home, while the language of instruction at the Franz Joseph Gymnasium was Polish. This multi-lingualism nourished Buber's life-long interest in language. Among the young Buber's first publications are essays on, and translations into Polish of, the poetry of Arthur Schnitzler and Hugo von Hofmannsthal.
Buber's literary voice may be best understood as probingly personal while seeking communication with others, forging a path between East and West, Judaism and Humanism, national particularity and universal spirit.
His deliberate and perhaps somewhat precious diction was nourished by the contrasts between the German classics he read at home and the fervently religious to mildly secular Galician Jewish jargon he encountered on the outside.
Reentering the urban society of Vienna, Buber encountered a world brimming with Austrian imperial tradition as well as Germanic pragmatism, where radical new approaches to psychology and philosophy were being developed.
This was a place where solutions to the burning social and political issues of city, nation, and empire were often expressed in grandly theatrical oratory Karl Lueger and in aestheticizing rhetoric and self-inscenation Theodor Herzl.
From toBuber and his life-partner, the author Paula Winkler —; pen-name: Georg Munkmoved to Berlin where they befriended the anarchist Gustav Landauer — and attended the salon of the Hart brothers, an epicenter of Jugendstil aesthetics.
Early on in this period Buber was active in the Zionist movement of Theodor Herzl, who recruited him as the editor of his journal Die Welt. At the beginning of the century, the publisher was looking to move beyond the gilded editions of Goethe and Schiller that they were publishing at the time.
Buber became their agent of modernization. One of the first books Buber placed here was his retelling of the stories of Rabbi Nachman, one of the great figures of Eastern European Hasidism.
The flagship publication edited by Buber was an ambitious forty-volume series of social studies, titled Die Gesellschaft, that appeared between and At that time, his friend Gustav Landauer severely criticized Buber's enthusiasm for the salutary effect that, as Buber saw it, the war was having on a hitherto fragmented society Gesellschafttransforming it into a national community Gemeinschaft.
Buber later claimed that it was at this time that he began to draft the book that was to become I and Thou. In Frankfurt, Buber met Franz Rosenzweig — with whom he was to develop a close intellectual companionship. Rosenzweig also became Buber's chief collaborator in the project, initiated by the young Christian publisher Lambert Schneider, to produce a new translation of the Bible into German, a project he continued after Rosenzweig's death.
In Buber received a long-coveted call to teach at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, an institution he had helped to found and that he had occasionally represented as a member of its board of overseers. World-famous in his later years, Buber traveled and lectured extensively in Europe and the United States.
Buber's wide range of interests, his literary abilities, and the general appeal of his philosophical orientation are reflected in the far-flung correspondence he conducted over the course of his long life. Among the poets of his time with whom he exchanged letters were Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Hermann Hesse, and Stefan Zweig.
He was particularly close to the socialist and Zionist novelist Arnold Zweig. Agnon Buber shared a deep interest in the revival of Hebrew literature. He was a major inspiration to the young Zionist cadre of Prague Jews Hugo Bergmann, Max Brod, Robert Weltsch and, while he was able to organize and direct Jewish adult education in Germany, he inadvertently provided a last bastion for the free exchange of ideas for non-Jews as well.
The journal Der Jude, founded and edited by Buber from untiland several editions of his speeches on Judaism made Buber the central figure of the Jewish cultural renaissance of the early twentieth century.
Philosophical Influences Among Buber's early philosophical influences were Kant's Prolegomena, which he read at the age of fourteen, and Nietzsche's Zarathustra. Haunted by the edgelessness of time and space, Buber found solace in Kant's understanding that space and time are forms of human intuition by which we organize a chaotic manifold of sense perceptions, and that being transcends human concepts like finitude or infinity.
From Nietzsche and Schopenhauer he learned the importance of human will, the power to project oneself heroically into the world of flux, and to do so according to one's own measure and standard. Though Buber's philosophy of dialogue is a decisive step away from Nietzschean vitalism, the focus on lived experience and embodied human wholeness, as well as the prophetic tone and aphoristic style Buber honed from early on, persisted in his subsequent writings.
In Vienna he absorbed the oracular poetry of Stefan George, which influenced him greatly, although he never became a disciple of George. In Leipzig and Berlin he developed an interest in the ethno-psychology of Wilhelm Wundt, the social philosophy of Georg Simmel, the psychology of Carl Stumpf, and the lebensphilosophische approach to the humanities of Wilhelm Dilthey.
From his early reading of philosophical literature Buber retained some of the most basic convictions found in his later writings. In Kant he found two answers to his concern with the nature of time. If time and space are pure forms of perception, then they pertain to things only as they appear to us as phenomena and not to things-in-themselves noumena.
Thus time concerns the way in which we experience not just things but also people. If our experience of others, especially of persons, is of objects of our experience, then we necessarily reduce them to the scope of our phenomenal knowledge, in other words, to what Buber later called the I-It relation.
Yet Kant also indicated ways of meaningfully speaking of the noumenal, even though not in terms of theoretical reason.
· An Introduction to Martin Buber. . The second source is his small The Way of Man According to the Teachings of Hasidism, A good book or essay or poem is not primarily an object to be put to use, or an object of experience: it is the voice of You speaking to me, requiring a attheheels.com A selection of Martin Buber’s works On Judaism.
since: ‘Whenever the concepts are incorrect. his inclusive message embraces the whole complex of human existence. is alien to the true essence of Israel’.
in Hebrew). aiming as it does to perfect man by perfecting his attheheels.com://attheheels.com · Martin Buber's Philosophy.
Martin Buber's work marks the beginnings of a philosophical movement including thinkers like Gabriel Marcel and Emmanuel Levinas that criticizes objectivity as the first or only way of understanding attheheels.com://attheheels.com “Martin Buber’s still-large voice has more importance than ever, and in this new translation, it rings with special eloquence.
Through Buber—and now through Mehlman and Padawer—the wisdom of the Hasidic Rabbis lives, and lives again.”attheheels.com · The Way of Man, as comes to the fore, makes a rather strong break with general accepted concepts of individualism in Western society. The individual in relation to a broader society is emphasised and he becomes, once again, a social attheheels.com://attheheels.com The Way of Man: According to Hasidic Teaching by Martin Buber This short and remarkable book presents the essential teachings of Hasidism, the mystical Jewish movement which swept through Eastern Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and their relevance to our attheheels.com › Shop › Books.