The background and history of the french riviera

This site is devoted to Peugeot's classic lugged and brazed performance bicycles. While the primary emphasis is on the PXE, we welcome information on other classic Peugeots.

The background and history of the french riviera

The first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back aboutyears; [9] the Terra Amata archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire, construction of houses, and flint findings dated to aroundyears ago.

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The city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast; but it had an important rival in the Roman town of Cemenelum [ citation needed ], which continued to exist as a separate city until the time of the Lombard invasions.

The ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimieznow a district of Nice. In the city repulsed the Saracens ; but in and again in the Saracens pillaged and burned it, and for most of the 10th century remained masters of the surrounding country. During the Middle AgesNice participated in the wars and history of Italy.

As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoaand both the King of France and the Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of this it maintained its municipal liberties.

During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provencebut it regained its independence even though related to Genoa.

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Duchy of Savoy red and other independent Italian states in This The background and history of the french riviera does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message The medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town.

The landward side was protected by the River Paillonwhich was later covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis.

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The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle Hill. Another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill.

The background and history of the french riviera

Engravings suggest that the port area was also defended by walls. Under Monoprix in Place de Garibaldi are excavated remains of a well-defended city gate on the main road from Turin.

In the commune placed itself under the protection of the Counts of Savoy. Nice participated — directly or indirectly — in the history of Savoy until In Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy abolished the use of Latin as an administrative language and established the Italian language as the official language of government affairs in Nice.

During the struggle between Francis I and Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence ; pestilence and famine raged in the city for several years. Pestilence appeared again in and By opening the ports of the county to all nations, and proclaiming full freedom of tradethe commerce of the city was given great stimulus, the noble families taking part in its mercantile enterprises.

In the peaceful years which followed, the "new town" was built. From until the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle the French and Spaniards were again in possession. In the king, who in had swapped his sovereignty of Sicily for the Kingdom of Sardinia, destroyed all that remained of the ancient liberties of the commune.

Conquered in by the armies of the First French Republicthe County of Nice continued to be part of France until ; but after that date it reverted to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. The cession was ratified by a regional referendum: Savoy was also transferred to the French crown by similar means.

Giuseppe Garibaldiborn in Nice, opposed the cession to France, arguing that the ballot was rigged by the French. Many Italians from Nizza then moved to the Ligurian towns of VentimigliaBordighera and Ospedaletti[12] giving rise to a local branch of the movement of the Italian irredentists which considered the re-acquisition of Nice to be one of their nationalist goals.

By the s more bus connections were added in the area. The circuit started along the waterfront just south of the Jardin Albert I, then headed westward along the Promenade des Anglais followed by a hairpin turn at the Hotel Negresco to come back eastward and around the Jardin Albert I before heading again east along the beach on the Quai des Etats-Unis.

After July and the establishment of the Vichy Regimeantisemitic aggressions accelerated the exodus, starting in July and continuing through On 26 AugustJews of foreign origin were rounded up by the Laval government and interned in the Auvare barracks.This site is devoted to Peugeot's classic lugged and brazed performance bicycles.

While the primary emphasis is on the PXE, we welcome information on other classic Peugeots. History of the Game of Bridge. Bridge can trace its ancestry at least to the early 16th century in England (first reference in a published sermon by Bishop Latimer) and through succeeding centuries when prototype forms of whist were played under such names as triumph, trump, ruff, slam, ruff and honours, whisk and swabbers, whisk, and whist.

The French section comprises part of the Côte d’Azur (which extends farther west), while the Italian section is known to the west and east of Genoa as the Riviera di Ponente and the Riviera di Levante, respectively.

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French Riviera - Cote d'Azur: History - TripAdvisor