Motivational salience Motivation as a desire to perform an action is usually defined as having two parts, directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one, as well as the activated "seeking phase" and consummatory "liking phase". This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal gangliaand mesolimbic, dopaminergic pathways. Activated "seeking" behavior, such as locomotor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, and microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward. Opioid injections in this area produce pleasure, however outside of these hedonic hotspots they create an increased desire.
According to McGregor, the perception of managers on the nature of individuals is based on various assumptions. Assumptions of Theory X An average employee intrinsically does not like work and tries to escape it whenever possible.
Since the employee does not want to work, he must be persuaded, compelled, or warned with punishment so as to achieve organizational goals. A close supervision is required on part of managers. The managers adopt a more dictatorial style. Employees generally dislike responsibilities.
An average employee needs formal direction. Assumptions of Theory Y Employees can perceive their job as relaxing and normal.
They exercise their physical and mental efforts in an inherent manner in their jobs. Employees may not require only threat, external control and coercion to work, but they can use self-direction and self-control if they are dedicated and sincere to achieve the organizational objectives.
An average employee can learn to admit and recognize the responsibility. In fact, he can even learn to obtain responsibility. The employees have skills and capabilities. Their logical capabilities should be fully utilized. In other words, the creativity, resourcefulness and innovative potentiality of the employees can be utilized to solve organizational problems.
Thus, he encouraged cordial team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participation of all in decision-making process. Theory X encourages use of tight control and supervision. It implies that employees are reluctant to organizational changes. Thus, it does not encourage innovation.
Many organizations are using Theory Y techniques. Theory Y implies that the managers should create and encourage a work environment which provides opportunities to employees to take initiative and self-direction.
Employees should be given opportunities to contribute to organizational well-being. Theory Y encourages decentralization of authority, teamwork and participative decision making in an organization.
Theory Y searches and discovers the ways in which an employee can make significant contributions in an organization.May 21, · It’s game on, for Human Resource officers. Increasingly, organizations like Marriott, Deloitte, Aetna and even the Department of Defense are using gaming to recruit, develop and motivate employees.
1. Talk to your employees and find out what motivates them individually. Employees' primary motivations may not simply be to collect a paycheck. Why do certain people become great leaders? Leadership theories seek to answer this question and usually fit into one of eight basic types.
Adult learning theories are not just a collection of jargons, concepts, and ideas about how adults learn. These theories help you plan and create better, more effective eLearning courses.
Some of the most important theories of motivation are as follows: 1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory 2. Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory 3.
The War for Talent never ended. Executives must constantly rethink the way their companies plan to attract, motivate, and retain employees.
(Guthridge, Komm, & Lawson, , p).