Emoji, Emoji, What for Art Thou? Lisa Lebduska By providing a history and context for emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of creative graphic expression than a threat to alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to a re-materilaizing of literacy. The essay acknowledges that in some instances emojis do help to clarify the intent or tone of alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and contextually bound. Emojis expand expression and in doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and even misinterpretation, along with the affirming possibilities of artistic creation.
We maintained several time horizons for our forward forecasts, from granular monthly forecasts to quarterly and annual forecasts to even five and ten year forecasts for the purposes of fund-raising and, well, strategic planning.
One of the most difficult things to forecast was our adoption rate. We were a public company, though, and while Jeff would say, publicly, that "in the short run, the stock market is a voting machine, in the long run, it's a scale," that doesn't provide any air cover for strategic planning.
It's your job to know what's going to happen in the future as best as possible, and every CFO of a public company will tell you that they take the forward guidance portion of their job seriously. Because of information asymmetry, analysts who cover your company depend quite a bit on guidance on quarterly earnings calls to shape their forecasts and coverage for their clients.
It's not just that giving the wrong guidance might lead to a correction in your stock price but that it might indicate that you really have no idea where your business is headed, a far more damaging long-run reveal. It didn't take long for me to see that our visibility out a few months, quarters, and even a year was really accurate and precise!
What was more of a puzzle, though, was the long-term outlook. Every successful business goes through the famous S-curve, and most companies, and their investors, spend a lot of time looking for that inflection point towards hockey-stick growth.
But just as important, and perhaps less well studied, is that unhappy point later in the S-curve, when you hit a shoulder and experience a flattening of growth. One of the huge advantages for us at Amazon was that we always had a fairly good proxy for our total addressable market TAM.
It was easy to pull the statistics for the size of the global book market. One could be really optimistic and say that we might even expand the TAM, but finance tends to be the conservative group in the company by nature only the paranoid survive and all that. When I joined Amazon I was thrown almost immediately into working with a bunch of MBA's on business plans for music, video, packaged software, magazines, and international.
I came to think of our long-term TAM as a straightforward layer cake of different retail markets. Still, the gradient of adoption was somewhat of a mystery. I could, in my model, understand that one side of it was just exposure.
That is, we could not obtain customers until they'd heard of us, and I could segment all of those paths of exposure into fairly reliable buckets: Awareness is also readily trackable through any number of well-tested market research methodologies.
Still, for every customer who heard of Amazon, how could I forecast whether they'd make a purchase or not? Why would some people use the service while others decided to pass?
For so many startups and even larger tech incumbents, the point at which they hit the shoulder in the S-curve is a mystery, and I suspect the failure to see it occurs much earlier. The good thing is that identifying the enemy sooner allows you to address it.
We focus so much on product-market fit, but once companies have achieved some semblance of it, most should spend much more time on the problem of product-market unfit. For me, in strategic planning, the question in building my forecast was to flush out what I call the invisible asymptote: It's an important concept to understand for many people in a company, whether a CEO, a product person, or, as I was back then, a planner in finance.
Amazon's invisible asymptote Fortunately for Amazon, and perhaps critical to much of its growth over the years, perhaps the single most important asymptote was one we identified very early on.
Where our growth would flatten if we did not change our path was, in large part, due to this single factor.
We had two ways we were able to flush out this enemy. For people who did shop with us, we had, for some time, a pop-up survey that would appear right after you'd placed your order, at the end of the shopping cart process. It was a single question, asking why you didn't purchase more often from Amazon.
For people who'd never shopped with Amazon, we had a third party firm conduct a market research survey where we'd ask those people why they did not shop from Amazon.
Both converged, without any ambiguity, on one factor. You don't even need to rewind to that time to remember what that factor is because I suspect it's the same asymptote governing e-commerce and many other related businesses today. People hate paying for shipping. It may sound banal, even self-evident, but understanding that was, I'm convinced, so critical to much of how we unlocked growth at Amazon over the years.
People don't just hate paying for shipping, they hate it to literally an irrational degree. We know this because our first attempt to address this was to show, in the shopping cart and checkout process, that even after paying shipping, customers were saving money over driving to their local bookstore to buy a book because, at the time, most Amazon customers did not have to pay sales tax.
That wasn't even factoring in the cost of getting to the store, the depreciation costs on the car, and the value of their time. People didn't care about this rational math.Find GIFs with the latest and newest hashtags!
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Jerz > Writing > E-text > Email Tips. Follow these email etiquette tips in order to write more effective email.
While Millennials typically prefer texting, the improvised, back-and-forth pattern we expect of texting conversations differs greatly from the pre-planned, more self-contained messages most professionals expect in the workplace. people 😀 grinning face 😬 grimacing face 😬 😁 grinning face with smiling eyes 😂 face with tears of joy 😃 smiling face with open mouth.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. EMOJI was a step outside the box for me.
It does deal with a difficult subject, but there's no gratuitous blood and gore included, no sex, and only a little mild profanity. ️ Writing Hand. A right hand holding a pen or pencil and writing. Shown with a blue pen on all platforms except Apple which has a black pen.
Writing Hand was approved as part of Unicode in and added to Emoji in